Saturday, May 16, 2020

Study On Credit Risk And Credit Risk Management - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1739 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Abstract The purpose of this research is to make clear the importance of credit risk management and how the firm can get the benefit by using different methodologies by different actions of credit risk management. Introduction Many institutions such as banking and enterprises are well-known to its clever usage of financial sources. The correct management of the financial sources and attributes makes it spirited for the organization to tolerate the different economic uncertainties and threats. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Study On Credit Risk And Credit Risk Management" essay for you Create order In addition, the strategy on managing the risks can be the most attractive strategy of the company that cannot be deteriorated but can be passed through the next generations of other managers. Background and problem statement The evaluation of risks can be the fundamental strategy in all of the organizations. Through the assessment of the risks, the organization can create a subjective decision and well plan. This all can help the accomplishment draw out from the process. In the classification of various system that are concerned in the assessing and managing the risk, the credit risk management is an rising activity that lies within the organization. Many researches attempted to answer the remuneration of the credit management within the organization. However, it remained indistinct for the management on how to manage and the principle of the credit risk management. Literature Review The credit risk management is accepted among the banks and other financial resources. The main purpose of the credit risk management is to minimize or diminish the possessions of the non-performing loans came from the consumers. The procedures and processes of the banks and their affiliates create a great collision in the flow of the financial resources. However, various economic reservations, international markets, or financial constraints can cause the financial status to be unbalanced. Aside from the financial deficiencies, the other causes of the financial constraints are the lack of buoyancy among the financial market to provide external help for the needed consumers, lack of potential to gather the information of the consumers, and the lack of push to have an forceful debt collecting. The non-performing loans can definitely cause too much stagnation of the financial sources. To provide the credit risk management efficiently, the banks and other financial institutions should a sses the reliability of the loaners. In terms of an enterprise, the estimation of their credit portfolio is enough to provide a system that continuously promotes the reviewing the risks and the ability of the business enterprise to pay. It is very common that the banking process restrict the occurrence of the risks during every transaction; for this reason, the bank managers should also rely on the effectiveness of the imposed regulations to predict the future risks.   From the different financial indicators, the position of the institution on the market disappointment are still depends on the internal process and the actions of the people. The economic theory in banking encompasses the interest and income theory in which is the basis of the cash flow approach in bank lending (Akperan, 2005). Credit risk management needs to be a vigorous process that enables the banks to proactively manage the loan portfolios to minimize the losses and earn an acceptable level of return to its shareholders. The importance of the credit risk management is recognized by banks for it can establish the standards of process, segregation of duties and responsibilities such in policies and procedures sanctioned by the banks (Focus Group, 2007). Credit risks appear in banking institution because of the uncertainties plagued the financial system. The uncertainties remain a major challenge in country. Still, the major approaches applied by the banks are the continuing efforts on research and close monitoring. Banks believe that the research and monitoring are the key sources of uncertainties like data generating institutions and the treasury (Uchendu, 2009). The market structure is important in banking for it influences the competitiveness of the banking system and companies to access to funding or credit investment. The economic growth affects the structure and development of the banking system. In addition, the vast knowledge in risk assessment and managerial approach is recognized as part of the development. Moreover, because the banks and the processes are highly regulated, it became very useful in assessing the effects or impact of the credit risk management in the banks and even in other financial sources (Gonzalez, 2009). Research Objectives The first objective of the study is to convey the purpose as well as the center of the credit risk management. Second is to determine the different actions of the management or the managers regarding the credit risk management. Through this two interconnected objectives, the study can ascertain its common ground in discussing the essential parts of the credit risk management. The credit risk management is admired among the banks and other financial resources. The main purpose of the credit risk management is to reduce or diminish the possessions of the non-performing loans came from the consumers. Credit risk is an investors risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. Such an event is known as a default. The other term for credit risk is default risk. Investor losses include lost principal and interest, decreased cash flow, and increased collection costs, which arise in a number of circumstances. Consumer does not make a payment due on a mortgage loan, credit card, line of credit, or other loan .Business does not make a payment due on a mortgage, credit card, line of credit, or other loan .A business or consumer does not pay a trade invoice when due .A business does not pay an employees earned salaries and wages when due A business or government bond issuer doesnt make a payment on coupon or principal payment when due .An insolvent insurance company does not pay a policy obligations .An insolvent bank wont return funds to a depositor .A government grants bankruptcy fortification an insolvent consumer or business .There are three types of credit risk. Default risk Credit spread risk Many companies use credit to pay for short-term supplies or to finance long-term growth. While most companies view loans and credit lines as a important part of business, those who understand how to alleviate credit risk are far more likely to succeed. This is because those lending money are viewing at credit risk when issuing any type of loan or credit line. To lessen credit risk a company wants to be sure it is not seeking more credit than it can credibly repay in a timely fashion. An emerging company may not want to grow in phases that allow it to recoup some of the debt spent. Companies can increase their credit rating, thus mitigate their credit risk, by starting to set up credit long before they need it. This can be adept with vendor credits, small business credit cards and loans. Your average balances in your bank accounts also help set up a lower credit risk. After all, if you have had an account for a long time with money in it to wrap debts and obligations, you are seen as credit-worthy. Mitigating credit risk Lenders mitigate credit risk by using several methods: Risk-based pricing: The Lenders generally charge a higher interest rate to borrowers, who are more likely to default, a term called risk-based pricing. A lender considers factors related to the loan such as loan purpose, credit rating, and loan-to-value ratio and estimates the effect on yield (credit spread). Covenants: Lenders may write provisions on the borrower, called covenants, into loan agreements: Periodically report its financial state. Cease from paying dividends, repurchasing shares, borrowing further, or other specific, voluntary actions that negatively affect the companys financial position Repay the loan in full, when the lender request, in certain events such as changes in the borrowers debt-to-equity ratio or interest coverage ratio Credit insurance and credit derivatives: The Lenders and bond holders may evade their credit risk by purchasing credit insurance or credit derivatives. These contrac ts move the risk from the lender to the seller (insurer) in exchange for payment. The common credit derivative is the credit default swap. Tightening: Lenders can overcome credit risk by reducing the amount of credit extended, either in total or to certain borrowers. For example, a distributor selling its products to a disturb retailer may attempt to lessen credit risk by reducing payment terms from net 30 to net 15. Diversification: Lenders to a small number of borrowers (or kinds of borrower) face a high degree of random credit risk, called concentration risk. Lenders lessen this risk by diversifying the borrower pool. Deposit insurance: Many governments set up deposit insurance to guarantee bank deposits of insolvent banks. Such protection discourages the consumers from withdrawing money when a bank is becoming insolvent, to shun a bank run, and motivate consumers to holding their savings in the banking system instead of in cash. Credit risk is risk due to uncertainty in a counterpartys (also called an obligors or credits) capability to meet its obligations. Because there are many types of counterpartiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ from individuals to partners and sovereign governmentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ and many different types of conditionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ from auto loans to derivatives transactionsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ credit risk takes many forms. organizations manage it in different ways. In evaluating credit risk from a single counterparty, an institution must consider three Default probability: What is the probability that the counterparty will default on its obligation either over the life of the compulsion or over some specified horizon, such as a year? Calculated for a one-year prospect, this may be called the expected default frequency. Credit exposure: In the experience of a default, how large will the outstanding obligation be when the default occurs? Recovery rate: In the event of a default, what portion of the exposure may be recovered th rough bankruptcy actions or some other form of settlement? When we speak of the credit quality of a requirement, this refers generally to the counterpartys capability to perform on that obligation. This encompasses both the obligations default probability and estimated recovery rate. To place credit exposure and credit quality in perception, recall that every risk include two elements: exposure and uncertainty. For credit risk, credit exposure represents the former, and credit quality represents the latter. Conclusion: From the above mentioned description it has cleared that credit risk management is the important aspect of any organization. If the management keeps in mind the methodologies and techniques mention in this study paper it can overcome this risk and can increase the value of the business.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Atlantis Intrigues a Teen - 2100 Words

Plato much believed that the civilization of Atlantis existed (Writer873). The origins of Atlantis are written in Plato’s â€Å"Critias† and â€Å"Timaeus† (Plato). Written around 350s B.C., the main character Solon, travels to Egypt and learns of Atlantis by priests (Writer873). He claimed his dialogues to be true records (Atlantis Subplots). Timaeus explains Atlantis was the â€Å"island situated in front of the straits, which are by you called Pillars of Herakles; the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together† (Plato). It goes on further â€Å"Atlantis was a great wonderful empire which had rule over the whole island† (Plato). Through short explanations Timaeus ends Atlantis â€Å"defeated and triumphed over the invaders,† â€Å"but afterwards there†¦show more content†¦The secrets, including the culture, of Atlantis are fascinating in the way Plato illustrates the city. Atlanteans were far more advanced than any civili zation during their time, not to be mistaken with Atlanteans being more advanced than any civilization during our time. Atlantis’ culture is explained in Critias by a great amount within it’s pages and it is extraordinary how the people behaved so civil and orderly back then. The first thing the reader will learn in reading Critias is Atlantis is ancient, ancient as in 9000 years (Plato). It’s no wonder Atlanteans became far more advanced than Athenians and other neighboring ancient cities. The empire had time to form a stable society and conduct new ways to make life easier. The other detail in Critias is â€Å"Athens was in command one side and fought through the whole war, and in command of the other side were the kings of the island of Atlantis† (Plato). Showing the two cities weren’t on the good terms before the fall of Atlantis. The article Atlantean Culture writes about the belief the people of Atlantis were â€Å"dominantly a race of reddish in color, average height, and slightly egg-shape heads and sloped forehead.† â€Å"Egerton Sykes (1894-1983), was not only the creator of the largest private collection on Atlantis in the world, he prided himself on knowing every scientist around the world in the field of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Herbal Supplements Essay Research Paper Jeff Reese free essay sample

Herbal Supplements Essay, Research Paper Jeff Reese was a bright, energetic scholar-athlete at the University of Michigan when he died all of a sudden on December 9, 1997. His decease came as a entire daze because, as a grappler, Reese was a fit immature adult male without any known medical conditions. The necropsy said the cause of decease was # 8220 ; rhabdomyolysis, # 8221 ; a cellular dislocation of skeletal musculus. His household, friends, physicians, and the NCAA all think Reese # 8217 ; s decease was caused by the addendum creatine Reese was taking to better his wrestle accomplishments. This unfortunate narrative high spots a turning job in America today, viz. the usage of addendums. The September 22, 1998 New York Times states that addendums can be loosely defined to include herbs, aminic acids, botanical infusions, quasi-vitamins every bit good as existent vitamins and minerals. Harmonizing to the September 8, 1998 Los Angeles Times, the addendums concern is going large concern, grossing $ 18 million dollars in one-year gross revenues. The April 30, 1998 USA Today reports that more than 130 million Americans on a regular basis usage addendums. Unfortunately, there are figure of jobs related to addendums that pose a figure of critical dangers to consumers. The bulk of these dangers can be linked to one individual job overall, the deficiency of equal labeling. Today we will research one of the most distressing jobs in society today, that being supplement labeling. We will get down by first, researching the dangers associated with addendum labeling. Second, we will place why these dangers exist. And eventually, we will analyze what steps we can take to protect ourselves when taking addendums Ira Flatow in NPR # 8217 ; s September 25, 1998 edition of Talk of the Nation points out that there are over 20,000 addendums on the market today. Unfortunately, there are a figure of dangers associated with these addendums because of their labeling. Those dangers include deceptive labels, hapless FDA ordinance, and the deficiency proper medical research on addendums. The first danger associated with addendums labeling is that current labels mislead the populace. The August 28, 1998 Regulatory Intelligence Data Agency states that the DSHEA or the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 allows dietetic addendums to do claims that a merchandise MAY impact the construction or operation of the organic structure # 8211 ; but CAN NOT do claims that they can handle, name, remedy or forestall a disease. In add-on, addendums labels are non ever clear about what they may or may non make, therefore confounding consumers about the addendums different utilizations. For illustration, the February 1998 Scientific American states that makers have interpreted the jurisprudence really liberally, doing package statements like # 8220 ; Clinically Proven to Improve Memory and Concentration. # 8221 ; To the uninformed consumer, this statement implies legitimacy to addendums when that legitimacy truly has non been established. A 2nd danger stems from the deficiency of equal FDA ordinance sing addendums. Harmonizing to the September 1, 1998 FDA Consumer, the DSHEA expanded the types of merchandises that could be marketed as # 8220 ; addendums # 8221 ; beyond indispensable foods to include vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, aminic acids, and any dressed ore, metabolite, component, infusion, or any combination of such ingredients. This means ANYTHING could be considered an indispensable food and therefore be marketed as a addendum. A 3rd danger centres on the deficiency of proper research on addendums and their effectivity. The New York Times of September 17, 1998 studies that unlike drugs, dietetic addendums do non hold to be proven safe and effectual before they are put on the market. Bruce Silverglade, legal personal businesss manager for The Center for Science in the Public Interest, said in the August 7, 1998 Biloxi Sun Herald that Congress and the DSHEA has handcuffed the FDA by # 8220 ; leting dietetic addendum companies to do claims without first turn outing they # 8217 ; re true. # 8221 ; Dr. Marcia Angell, executive manager of the New England Journal of Medicine, states that if addendums were held to the same criterions as drugs, the # 8220 ; onus would be on the makers to turn out safety and efficaciousness, and I think most of them would close down. # 8221 ; Because addendums are non tested, consumers are seting themselves at hazard when they use them. Now that we are more familiar with the dangers that exist, we can now turn our attending to why these dangers will go on to be in the hereafter. To make this, we will turn our attending to the new FDA addendum jurisprudence and research why this new jurisprudence will non turn to current labeling jobs. Harmonizing to the January/February 1998 FDA Consumer, new labeling regulations will take topographic point following month. These intelligence labels will incorporate information about appropriate helpings, how addendums should be referred to on a label and when merchandises can utilize the footings # 8220 ; high authority # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; antioxidants. # 8221 ; What is dismaying about this new jurisprudence is that it does non turn to the cardinal jobs linked to addendums. The first ground why this new jurisprudence will be uneffective is because these new labels still will non protect consumers from addendums or warn them of side effects. Prevention # 8217 ; s Guide to Healing Herbs fro thousand September 29, 1998 provinces that makers are prohibited from labeling herb merchandises to stipulate possible side effects. That’s because the FDA positions posting this information as doing medicative claims. What that means to us is that we can non be truly certain what is in a addendum because of uncomplete labeling. A 2nd ground this new jurisprudence will non work is because the FDA does non look into addendum labeling to guarantee they contain the right ingredient contents. The New York Times reminds us that # 8220 ; There are presently no federal ordinances that set up scientific standards for pureness, designation, and fabrication processs of dietetic addendums, # 8221 ; which means # 8220 ; manufacturers can set in merely about anything they want, including no active ingredient at all, and there is still no warrant that what is says on the label is what is in the bottle. # 8221 ; And that is precisely what addendum manufacturers do. The June 22, 1998 Business Week studies that a Mississippi watchdog group checked 107 merchandises to look into their label truth. It found that over one-half deviated in ingredient content by 20 % or more. Despite this, the new jurisprudence still will non necessitate the FDA to look into merchandises to do certain labels accurately list dose sums. Finally, without any type of proper research on addendums, no sum of regulations modulating the addendums will assist us the consumer determine if they are safe or non. Manufacturers are non required by the FDA to prove their merchandises, so most do non. Prevention # 8217 ; s Guide points out that herb sellers are unwilling to blast out the $ 200+ million dollars it would take to acquire a medicative claim on a herb, one because of the cost, and two, because sellers can non patent the benefits of a works. So herbs remain classified as herbs. And we, as the consumer, may non truly cognize what we are taking or in what sums. It is clear that there are a batch of danger associated with addendum labeling, and that the new jurisprudence taking consequence following month won # 8217 ; t work out those jobs. But there are stairss we can take as consumers to protect ourselves from addendums. First, we need to retrieve that addendums are so drugs. The September 6, 1998 Chicago Tribune states that people merely wear # 8217 ; t view the progressively popular # 8216 ; natural addendums # 8217 ; as drugs because they manner the merchandises are described on their labels. But addendums are drugs, and cautiousness should be exercised when taking them. Second, look at your addendum # 8217 ; s label closely. The May 1, 1998 Medical Education and Research Foundation suggests that you buy merchandises with an U.S.P. label, bespeaking that the supplement meets disintegration criterions created by the US Pharmacopoeia. If the merchandise doesn # 8217 ; Ts have a U.S.P label, see buying a different one. Third, maintain on the sentinel for deceitful merchandises. These merchandises may hold written on their labels questionable statements like # 8220 ; laboratory-tested # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; quality and authority guaranteed. # 8221 ; Or addendums may utilize pseudomedical slang like # 8220 ; detoxicate, # 8221 ; # 8220 ; sublimate, # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; stimulate # 8221 ; to depict a merchandise # 8217 ; s effects, slang that is truly obscure and difficult to mensurate. Besides be wary of merchandises that claim to be a # 8220 ; secret remedy # 8221 ; or utilize such footings like # 8220 ; discovery, # 8221 ; # 8220 ; charming, # 8221 ; # 8220 ; miracle remedy, # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; new discovery. # 8221 ; The lone find you might do is how much you are passing on worthless merchandises. Fourth, ever look into with your physician before taking addendums, particularly if you are taking prescription medical specialty. The September 22, 1998 New York Times states that most people who take nonprescription dietetic addendums neer report that fact to their doctors. For illustration, those who take the medical specialty Prozac are told non to take St. John # 8217 ; s Wort as a addendum. Uniting the two could do inauspicious reactions and diminish the effectivity of the fluoxetine. Besides, if you are hospitalized for any ground, do certain your physician knows of all drugs you are taking, including addendums. By informing your physician, he or she may be better able to name your jobs every bit good as brand sure you don # 8217 ; Ts take any drugs that might adversely respond with the addendums. Finally, if you continue to take addendums, take them with repasts, when everything is go throughing through the digestive piece of land at a slower rate and the pill is hence more likely to fade out decently. This will assist in forestalling any unwanted jobs, medical or otherwise. Today we have looked at the job of addendums labeling, the causes of the job, and what we can make to protect ourselves from addendums. We found that the FDA is non making plenty to inform or warn consumers about addendums, despite new regulations increasing the sum of information on addendum labels. Until the regulations change, it # 8217 ; s up to us to do certain we are protecting ourselves from possible unsafe addendums. So, as you cruise the aisle of your local wellness nutrient shop or WalMart, and are tempted to make for a bottle of Gingkoba or Ginseng, expression before buying. Remember Jeff Reese # 8217 ; s decease, a decease that could hold been prevented. Addendums may sound good, but until the FDA tightens up its labeling demands and consumers know what they are taking, you might be better off avoiding natural addendums wholly.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Memoirs of a Geisha Analysis free essay sample

The main characters,Chiyo and Satsu, were taken to Kyoto with a promise of a better life compared to the life they have at the village but they only ended up in an okiya and a prostitution house, respectively. Hatsumomo maltreats Chiyo because she foresees that someday, Chiyo will achieve more than what she did in her lifetime. Hatsumomo held Chiyo responsible for stealing her brooch although it was a lie so that she will be more favored. Mameha purposely wounded Sayuris thigh so she can ain Dr. Crabs loyalty and influence. Hatsumomo and Pumpkin followed Mameha and Sayuri to steal the attention of their customers. The Baron offers Sayuri a kimono privately then molests her so he can fulfill his needs. Mrs. Nitta sells Sayuris mizuage ritual to Dr. Crab since it will cause her to get more money. Pumpkin betrayed Sayuri in order to get the latters customers. We will write a custom essay sample on Memoirs of a Geisha Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page All these circumstances leads to prove that greed is the root cause of the abuse of rights. For example, when Chiyo and Satsu were brought to Kyoto, it was without their knowledge and consent, meaning, their right to know what is happening and to decide is robbed from them. Another circumstance is when Mrs. Nitta sold Sayuris mizuage ritual to Dr. Crab Just to get the money she wanted. In this certain scene, Sayuri was again removed of her right to make decisions for herself. Thus leading to the conclusion that greed is the main cause of the abuse of human rights.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Cultural Identity Essays

Cultural Identity Essays Cultural Identity Paper Cultural Identity Paper Essay Topic: Aint I a Woman Black Women and Feminism The story has an underlying feministic weave. There is a noticeable lack of the mention of any father figure in the story and even the role of Dees companion, Hakim-a barber is minimized. Everyday Use makes no mention of a father for either of the daughters. The strength of Mamma is so compelling that it overshadows any need for a male in the house. This symbolically illustrates the black woman as the underpinning of the African American family. The message is that black women have always been strong but have never asserted that strength. Mama describes herself as a large, big-boned woman with rough, man-working hands. In the winter I wear flannel nightgowns to bed and overalls during the day. I can kill and clean a hog as mercilessly as a man (Walker, Everyday Use) Mamas upbeat self-image in spite of little formal education leads the reader to feel the intense pride she has in maintaining self-sufficiency. Mama does the hard work a man would, if he were around. Mama is a feminist, not manifested by protesting for equal rights or male bashing, but by virtue of strong will and determination exemplified by doing what it takes to provide and care for the family. The male presence is absent from Mamas home. The only exceptions are the memories of hand constructed household items. No mention is made of a father. He is absent in memory, financial support, nor is he even mentioned in the story at all. Walkers story goes to great lengths to describe Dees outgoing personality, speech and her clothing and accessories. Contrasting Dees outgoing personality is Hakim-a barbers it minimized, when after arriving in the car his only words and actions are an attempt to explain and pronounce his African name and a feeble attempt to perform an unknown ritualistic hand shake. Hakim-a barber illustrates his lack of provider skills when he said But farming and raising cattle is not my style. (Walker, Everyday Use) He provides nothing of the daily substance required to feed or provide for a family (Everyday Use. ) Alice Walker is intentionally vague regarding Dees, relationship with boyfriend / husband Hakim-a barber. Hakim-a barber seems relegated to chauffer and conspirator enamored with the illusion of Black Power. Hakims character is shallow and without essence, thus relegating the male to a third class position in the family. This is likely a reflection of Walkers disdain for the superficial actions of black men during the Black Power movement in the 1960s. Although they go through the outward motions and threaten and shout, they still depend on the women as they always have. Walker infers that the women are the true source of inspiration and strength. Finally, Walker imparts a third theme, which is that of cultural heritage and what it should mean to the African-American Black of the 1960s and 1970s. Walkers main purpose in the story seems to be to challenge the Black Power movement and black people in general, to acknowledge and respect their American heritage. (White, David) (Everyday Use: Defining African-American Heritage. ) The fact that Dee/Wangero has two names is a symbol of the young persons confusion in the search for identity with a culture that is acceptable to them. Since they are ashamed of their role in the American past, they attempt to throw off all reference to the Negro culture, in favor of the African culture, but neither seems to have total credibility. They do not understand the need to find the blend between the two in order to move forward. Mama struggles to decide which daughter should receive the family quilt. Quilts have a special symbolic meaning to Mama. When she moves up to touch the quilts, she is reaching out to touch the people whom the quilts represent. On a deeper level, Alice Walker is exploring the concept of heritage as it applies to American blacks, particularly women. As in other works, Walker uses quilts to symbolize the ancient bond between women. In Everyday Use, the quilts serve the same function in this poor black family as the family paintings or photo albums might have in a white household. In the persona of Wangero, Dee strives to reject her American heritage and take on an African one, but in the persona of Dee, she wants to be like her white girlfriends and display her American heritage. Mama sees hanging the quilts on the wall as Dee distancing herself from her true past. Mama cannot trust Dee to carry on the traditions established by past generations of family members. Walker weaves in her insights into African and American heritage to write Everyday use. Finally, Mama realizes that her daughter Maggie has a closer connection with her view of family history than Dee does, and gives her the quilts, following her assertion of authority over Dee Dee takes pictures of her Mamma and sister Dee but is always using a backdrop of a cow or the poverty-stricken shack they call home. This is indicative of Dee holding herself in a superior class of Black from her family. One can almost envision Dee passing the pictures around to her friends and saying, See I achieved my status from such humble beginnings. Dee shows the extreme side of Black Civil rights, Black Panthers who reject their American culture, seeking to reinvent a heritage with proud African roots. That fact Dee is rejecting hundreds of years of her heritage, for one that is fabricated is disconcerting to Mama. Dee projects so little insight to her American heritage that when asked what she would do with the family quilts she replies, It is clear from Maggies statement that her everyday use of the quilts would be as a reminder of her Grandma Dee. Dees primary use for the quilts would be to hang them on the wall as a reminder of her superior social and economic status. (White, David. Everyday Use: Defining African-American Heritage. ) This parallels her with middle class girlfriends family portraits hanging on the wall. Dee will only observe her family heritage, but Maggie will ast as a cultural role model every day. Alice Walker is effective in weaving symbolism into much of her writing and Everyday Use is no exception. Walker possesses the ability to write on a multifaceted level that is simple but purposeful with profound underlying themes. Her style of writing allows her to convey her messages to her readers, each having the possibility of gaining as much as their intellect and backgrounds will permit. She avoids polarization, but challenges her literary audience with this symbolic writing style. In addressing topics, that she is both knowledgeable and passionate about Alice Walker uses symbolism to address three issues: Racism, Feminism and the Search for Cultural Identity. WORKS CITED Alice Walker Biography The University of Texas at Austin [6 June, 2003] http://wwwvms. utexas. edu/~melindaj/bio. html Nama, Charles Aesthetic modes in Afro-American fiction. Kola, Autumn 2002 v14 i2 p51 (9). InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP Brookhaven College Library, Farmer Branch, TX Electronic Collection: A94126706 Copyright (c) 1995-2003 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers  http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/brookhaven_col

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Corellation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Corellation - Essay Example If two variables are correlated, it still does not mean that one variable causes the other to vary as it does even if the statement makes sense (Jaccard & Becker, 2002; para. 1, â€Å"What is the difference,† n.d.). If one action causes another, then they are most certainly correlated therefore causation causes correlation and not the other way around (Deutsch, 2005; para. 1, â€Å"What is the difference,† n.d.). Moreover, in using correlational data, causal inferences cannot be made even if we obtain a perfect correlation which may be a +1.00 or -1.00 (Myers & Hansen, 2006). If causal inferences are to be drawn from correlational analyses, extreme caution must be made (Jaccard & Becker, 2002). Actually, there are four possible reasons as to why two variables X and Y might be correlated. Four possibilities are that (1) X causes Y, (2) Y causes X, (3) X and Y affect each other which is known as bidirectional causation, or (4) some additional variable(s) causes both X and Y (Jaccard & Becker, 2002; Myers & Hansen, 2006). To further illustrate these possibilities, let us explore some examples. For illustration purposes, let us say we find a positive correlation between the number of hours college students spend working for pay and the number of campus organizations college students belong to, it is unlikely that working causes students to join organizations or that membership in organizations causes students to work but the correlation between hours of work and group membership is probably attributable to students’ desire to achieve and related personality characteristics (Jaccard & Becker, 2002). There are also examples wherein the causal relationship underlying a correlation is ambiguous such as the correlation between the amount of violent television a child watches and child’s aggressiveness. In this case, there are four possible

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Dangerous Properties of Materials Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Dangerous Properties of Materials - Coursework Example Though all forms of mercury can cause effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, methyl mercury and metallic mercury are more harmful. Acute inhalation of metallic mercury vapours may cause damage to the lungs, nausea, diarrhea, increased blood pressure, skin rashes, eye irritation, chest pains, stomatitis, gingivitis, cough, dyspnea and salivation. Chronic exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury may cause permanent damage to brain, kidneys and developing fetus. Effects of chronic exposure on brain functioning may cause weakness, fatigue, weight loss, vision or hearing disorders, tremors development, behavioral changes, aneuploidy in lymphocytes of the exposed, dremographia and memory loss. Chronic exposure to mercuric compounds is sometimes also characterized by anorexia, apathy, fever, diaphoresis, photophobia, insomnia and scaling or peeling of the skin of the hands and feet with bullous lesions. Toxicity Metabolites and Biomarkers Exposure to organo-mercury compounds is indicated by chemical analysis of blood mercury. Inorganic mercury concentrations in blood can be used to determine acute exposure to high dose of mercury. Absorption of phenyl mercury through gastrointestinal tract with even acute exposure resulted in a marked increase in blood concentrations as well as urinary excretion of mercury. Chemical analysis of urinary mercury can alternatively be used to determine exposure to chronic, low and moderate inorganic mercury forms. As mercury can deposit on hair from surface contamination, hair mercury is a good indicator of exposure to methyl mercury. Dose The acute lethal dose for inorganic mercury compounds is 1 to 4 grams or 14 to 57 milligrams per kilogram body weight for a 70 kg adult person. The acute lethal dose ranges from 20 to 60 milligrams per kilogram body weight of methyl mercury for a 70 kg adult person. According to EPA, a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb) is saf e for human health. A limit of 1 part of methyl mercury in a million parts of seafood (1 ppm) has been set by the Food and Drug Administration. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has suggested a maximum permissible limit of 0.1 milligram of organic mercury per cubic meter of workplace air (0.1 mg/m3) and 0.05 mg/m3 of metallic mercury vapor for 8-hour shifts and 40-hour work. Effects on the environment, cases and their treatment Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring odorless liquid metal with shiny, silver-white appearance. Mercury also combines with other elements to form several inorganic salts and organo-mercury compounds. It enters the environment naturally from rocks, soil, volcanic activity, and by vaporization from the oceans. However, two-third of the Mercury entering the atmosphere every year is released from human sources. These sources include coal-burning power plants, chemical manufacturing plants, waste incinerators and mining of ore deposits. The disease caused by exposure to mercury compounds is called Mercury poisoning, Hydrargyria or Mercurialism. The first case of mercury poisoning was witnessed among researchers at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in 1865. Two of the three technicians died because of excessive exposure to methyl mercury while manufacturing organic mercurial compounds. Human exposure to high levels of